Risk factors for metabolic syndrome in individuals with recent-onset psychosis at disease onset and after 1-year follow-up


Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a cluster of parameters encompassing the most dangerous heart attack risk factors, associated with increased morbidity and mortality. It is highly prevalent in recent-onset psychosis (ROP) patients. In this pilot study, we evaluated MetS parameters (fasting glucose, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (HDL-c), fasting triglycerides, waist circumference, and systolic and diastolic blood pressure), clinical symptoms, pharmacological treatment, lifestyle, and inflammatory markers in 69 patients with ROP and 61 healthy controls (HCs). At baseline, waist circumference (p = 0.005) and fasting triglycerides (p = 0.007) were higher in patients with ROP than in HCs. At the 1-year follow-up, patients showed clinical improvement, with a reduction in the positive and negative syndrome scale (PANSS) score (p < 0.001), dietary intake (p = 0.001), and antipsychotic medication dose (p < 0.001); however, fasting glucose (p = 0.011), HDL-c (p = 0.013) and waist circumference worsened (p < 0.001). We identified sex, age, BMI, dietary intake, physical activity, daily tobacco use, daily cannabis use, and antipsychotic doses as risk factors contributing to baseline MetS parameters. After 1-year follow-up, those factors plus the PANSS and Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia (CDSS) scores were associated with MetS parameters. Further studies are needed to understand the contributions of the studied risk factors in patients with ROP at onset and during disease progression.

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